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上清宫、千唐志斋、明堂、升仙太子碑、唐恭陵、定鼎门、灵山景区

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隋唐洛阳中轴线最北端建筑---上清宫
上清宫位于洛阳市邙山之巅翠云峰,相传是太上老君炼丹的地方。为我国道教名观。
上清宫始建于唐玄宗开元年间。公元666年(唐乾封元年)追尊老子(李耳)为玄元皇帝。公元741年(开元二十九年)诏令两京诸州置庙祭祀。因而上清宫又叫玄元皇帝庙,后人追尊老子为太上老君,所以也称老君庙。
唐朝时期上清宫规模宏大,殿堂巍峨,门外有石狮石马,殿内有雕塑绘画。大画家吴道子所作壁画《五圣千官像》,十分辉煌壮观。历代文人墨客涉足山巅,古都尽收眼底,思今怀古,留下不少著名诗篇。杜甫山河扶绣户,日月近雕梁是描述上清宫的名句。宋代文豪苏东坡也曾在上清宫题字留念。后至金元废毁。明清多有修缮,至雍正八年(1730)知府张汉鼎等重修,庙宇南北长500米,东西宽300米,有戏楼山门一、二、三殿;19444月,遭日寇飞机猛烈轰炸,仅存山门和窑洞(翠云洞)。现在保持为青砖庙院,紧凑幽静。
洛阳市近年来营造上清宫森林公园。这里郁郁葱葱,苍翠若云,翠云峰更加秀美上清宫更见显赫。
宋代诗人邵雍《同府尹李给事游上清宫》更形象的描绘了上清宫。洛城二月春摇荡,桃李盛开如步障。高花下花红相连,垂阳更出高花上。闲陪大尹出都门,邙阜真宫共寻访。不见翠华西幸时,临风尽日独惆怅。
Temple Shang Qing Gong
Shang Qing Gong is on top Cui Yun Feng, mountain Mang Shan. Tai Shang Lao Jun, also Lao Zi had lived here. He is beginner of Taoism.
The temple was first built in Tang dynasty. It is also Xuan Yuan Huang Di Miao or Lao Jun Miao.
In Tang dynasty, its area was the largest, with stone animals outside and some pictures inside. Famous people like Wu Dao Zi, Du Fu, Su Dong Po and others had come to the temple. In Jin dynasty, it was destroyed, and then rebuilt in Ming and Qing dynasties. It was 500 meters from north to south, 300 meters from west to east.  Here were opera tower, mountain gate and three halls inside the temple before. Now, it only left a mountain gate and a cave Cui Yun Dong because of wars.
Recent years, a garden was built around the temple.
One poem of Song dynasty poet Shao Yong had described the temple lively.
唐代碑刻艺术宝库-----洛阳千唐志斋
千唐志斋位于洛阳市新安县铁门镇,是中国唯一的墓志铭博物馆,全国重点文物保护单位。
1935年上海西冷印社发行的《千唐志斋藏石目录》,记载当时有碑刻1578件。千唐志斋收藏的碑刻,多为历代名家遗墨,其中有南朝王弘所书的行草条幅,宋代米芾的行草对联,元代赵孟頫的楷书碑文,明代董其昌所书横披,清代"神笔"王铎及刘镛、邵瑛、韩东篱、郑板桥等人的墨迹。此外还有蒋介石撰文、国民党43名省级以上党政军要员为张钫母亲祝寿的《张母王太夫人寿序》等珍贵碑刻。
千唐志斋现存碑刻1400余件,其中唐志接近1200件。据统计,到目前为止,唐人墓志共出土3500多件,千唐志斋占有三分之一。从武德贞观年起,到后唐的天复、天佑年止,300年号,无不尽备。志主身份自相国太尉至刺史太守,处士名流,宫娥才女,百姓杂家,无所不包。其中有堪称国宝的武则天造字19个。有迄今能看到的唯一的狄氏手迹---《袁公墓志铭》。这些墓志记载了唐人形形色色的社会活动,为研究唐代的文治武功提供了难得的实物资料,是证史、纠史、补史的重要佐证,可视为石刻唐书唐人档案馆。更是研究唐人翰墨文章、书法艺术的资料宝库。
千唐志斋是辛亥革命元老、著名爱国民主人士张钫先生二十年代初在自己家乡筹建起来的。张钫,字伯英,号友石老人。1886年出生,清末毕业于保定陆军速成学堂。早年曾参加同盟会,是辛亥革命时期陕西新军起义的主要策动者之一。孙中山发动护法运动时,张钫任陕西靖国军副总司令。上世纪三十年代历任国民革命军二十路军总指挥,河南省政府代理主席及民政、建设厅长等职。解放战争时,他曾对和平解放四川做过有益工作,1949年底在成都起义。解放后,张钫曾任第二届全国政协委员和中国历史博物馆副馆长。19665月病逝于北京。张钫先生酷爱金石书画,在曾任陕西靖国军总司令于右任的鼓励下,戎马间隙,将流散于洛阳地区民间的碑刻多方罗致,在自家花园蛰庐(康有为题)西侧专辟一隅,镶嵌储存。其建筑包括一走廊、三天井、十五孔拱式砖窑洞。中国近代国学大师章太炎先生为其题千唐志斋
近年来,千唐志斋在国内外知名度不断增加,张钫故里整修一新。这里不仅是一个唐代碑刻千年秘笈的博物馆,也是一处充满豫西情调的民居建筑游览景点。
Tang Dynasty tablets treasure – qian tang zhi zhai
Qian tang zhi zhai is in Luoyang, tablets museum, national culture relic’s protection unit.
In 1935, Shanghai Xileng published “qian tang zhi zhai tablets record”, 1578 pieces. The tablets are left by many famous people, like Wang Hong of South Dynasty, Mi Fei of Song Dynasty, Zhao Mengtiao of Yuan Dynasty, Dong Qichang of Ming Dynasty, Wang Duo and Zheng Banqiao of Qing Dynasty. Jiang Jieshi and some other officials left words for Zhang Fan’s mother.
Qian tang zhi zhai save 1400 tablets, nearly 1200 are tang dynasty. It occupies 1/3 of all Tang Dynasty 3500 tablets. They are in 300 reign titles from wu de to tian you. Tablet owners are in different positions from poor to rich. Female emperor Wu zhe tian ever made 19 characters in which. Hand writing “yuan gong inscription” by Dishi only can be seen now. The grave tablets record different social activities in Tang dynasty, providing materials for politic and military for that time, important evidences of history, can be seen as “tang stone book” and “tang people archive.” More important, they are precious calligraphy and writing articles.
Qian tang zhi zhai was planed by patriotic person Zhang Fang in 1920s. Zhang Fang, also name Bo ying. He was born in 1886, graduated from military school in late Qing dynasty, joined Tong meng league and Shan xi uprising, as officer in He Nan province government and as commander in land army. He spent his most time in china’s liberation wars, and then became national politics member and museum administer after liberation. He was dead in Beijing, May, 1966. Zhang Fang love collecting stones and calligraphy, saving them in his own garden. All include a corridor, three yards and fifteen caves. Contemporary culture master Zhang taiyan gave name “qian tang zhi zhai” to the garden.
Recent years, qian tang zhi zhai is more famous, old house of zhang fang is rebuilt. It is not only a tablets museum, also a scenic spot.
武则天办公的地方---明堂
公元687年,武则天称帝,拆除洛阳宫城正殿乾元殿(隋称乾阳殿),就地建造明堂。公元688年竣工。
史料记载,明堂外观分上、中、下三层,高约88米。室内为多层复合空间,中有十人合抱之粗的巨型通心柱。底层为正方形,各边长约90米;中层为十二边形并覆有圆盖,上有九条金龙;顶层为二十四边形,覆有圆顶,圆顶上有镀金凤凰。
建成后的明堂被称为万象神宫,是武则天下诏书、设宴招待臣子、接见使节和祭天的大殿,是当时国家的政治中心。
唐代大诗人李白曾作《明堂赋》,盛赞穆穆焉,皇皇焉,……未有若斯之壮观者矣!感叹盛矣美矣!皇哉,唐哉!
公元695年,天堂和明堂曾毁于火灾。武则天下令按原尺寸重建。696年再次落成,又称武周明堂或通天宫。
公元738年,唐玄宗对明堂进行过大的改建。
安史之乱中,明堂两次被焚,于公元762年彻底损毁。
明堂是中国古代建筑史上最大的木结构单体建筑,是中国历史上唯一的楼阁式皇宫正殿建筑,是唐代建筑的巅峰之作。它下方上圆的建筑形制,表达了十二时辰、二十四节气及天人合一、天圆地方等建筑思想,开创了中国古代建筑史上建筑形制由方到圆的先河,对后来朝代的建筑风格影响深远。北京天坛祈年殿的设计原型即来自明堂。
20123月,明堂保护展示主体工程竣工。新建筑高21.18米、宽105米,外观三层。集遗址保护、文物陈列、考古发掘、模拟展示、休闲旅游功能于一体。历史的明堂,重新展现在了人们的眼前。
Women emperor Wu Ze Tians office place---Ming Tang
A.D. 687, Wu Ze Tian was in power, Sui dynasty palace Qian Yang Dian or Qian Yuan Dian in Tang dynasty was replaced by Ming Tang.
Record that, Ming Tang was about 88 meters high, three floors. A large pillar was in the center from first floor to third floor. First floor is in square shape, each side 90 meters. Second floor is with 12 sides, round top and 9 golden dragons. Third floor is with 24 sides, one golden phoenix on top.
Ming Tang was called as Wan Xiang Shen Gong when it was first finished. Wu Ze Tian made orders, had meetings, met foreign ministers, and made ceremony here. It was government center at that time.
Tang dynasty poet Li Bai gave high praise to Ming Tang in his poem “Ming Tang Fu.”
A.D. 695, Tian Tang and Ming Tang were destroyed by fire. Wu Ze Tian ordered to rebuild them. A.D. 696, it was once again finished.
A.D. 738, Tang dynasty emperor Tang Xuan Zong rebuilt it.
In rebellion An Shi Zhi Luan, Ming Tang was completely destroyed in A.D. 762.
Ming Tang was made of wood, and a place of three floors. It is very rare in Chinese building history. Its square base and round top designs involve 12 earthly branches, 24 solar terms, harmony between man and nature, round sky and square earth etc. buildings thinking.
Main part of Ming Tang was exhibited in March 2012. It is 21.18 meters high and 105 meters wide, three floors outside, important in protection, exhibition, discovery, show, and recreation.
升仙太子碑
升仙太子碑是武则天存世的仅有的书法作品位于偃师市府店镇南缑
公元69924日,武则天从洛阳出发前赴嵩岳封禅,途经偃师缑山,谒升仙太子庙,回洛阳后撰写了升仙太子碑文。同年619日,升仙太子碑立于缑山升仙太子庙殿前。
升仙太子碑碑高6.7米、宽1.55米、厚0.55米,碑文33行,每行66字,行书和草书相间,接近章草(小草)书体,盘龙首,龟驮。除武则天书法外,还有当时著名书法家钟绍京、薛曜、薛稷等书迹。该碑既是研究武周盛世难得的宝贵资料,又是一方初唐书法作品的宝库。
碑文开始写周灵王太子晋(子乔)仙故事,接着描写武周时国家统一,边防巩固,社会安定,经济文化发达的繁茂景象。瑞表祥图,洋溢于中外。乾坤交泰,阴阳和而风雨调……”,洋洋洒洒2700余言,内容丰富,典故林立,洋溢着女皇武则天的惊人才华,被有关学者誉为天下女子第一书
武则天以鸟形字体书写的碑额别有韵味,飞白体,俗谓笔花,是书法中的上乘佳作, 难得一见。
该碑价值还在于,巾帼书碑从此始。武则天打破了传统惯例,开创了中国妇女书碑的先河。
升仙太子碑是河洛大地艺术宝库中的珍品
Tablet Sheng Xian Tai Zi Bei
Tablet Sheng Xian Tai Zi Bei is left by female emperor Wu Ze Tian. The calligraphy on it is from her. It is on mountain Gou Shan, village Fu Dian, county Yan Shi.
Wu Ze Tian made ceremony to Mountain Song Shan in 4th February, 699 A.D. She passed Mountain Gou Shan and visited Temple Sheng Xian Tai Zi Miao, then left the calligraphy. In 19th June of the same year, Tablet Sheng Xian Tai Zi Bei was erected in the front of the temple.
The tablet is 6.7 meters high, 1.55meters wide and 0.55 meters thick. There are 33 lines and 66 characters each line of different calligraphy styles on it. A stone turtle with a dragon head is under the tablet. There is not only Wu Ze Tian’s calligraphy, but also other famous people’s work.
The content of the calligraphy is about the story of Zhou dynasty emperor Zhou Ling Wang and history of Wu Zhou. Wu Zhou is the time when Wu Ze Tian was in power. Zhou is related to Zhou Ling Wang. The calligraphy especially shows the rich of Wu Zhou time in Tang dynasty.
Wu Ze Tian’s calligraphy is hard to see now. It is very unique.
The value of the tablet is also that, women began to leave calligraphy on tablet from Wu Ze Tian.
Tablet Sheng Xian Tai Zi Bei is very precious for the culture history of Luo Yang.
洛阳唐恭陵
恭陵在洛阳偃师市缑氏镇滹沱村景山之巅,俗称太子冢。是唐高宗李治第五子、武则天长子李弘的陵墓
李弘生于公元652年,两岁时,被封为代王,公元656年被立为皇太子。24岁时,在东都洛阳的合璧宫去世。《资治通鉴》中记载:人以为天后鸩之也,怀疑是武则天将他毒害。李弘之死令唐高宗李治非常伤心,下诏以天子之礼下葬。
陵冢原封土长、宽168180米,高度在30米以上,整个墓区约500亩。陵前有辟邪、翁仲、天马、望柱等石象生九对,为著名宫廷建筑艺术家韦弘机指挥雕刻,与龙门奉先寺群雕同出一手,是艺术珍品。唐代皇陵自恭陵开始才有神道石象生,开了陵墓神道的先河。恭陵前一尊石碑,高6.1米,宽1.95米,高宗亲自撰书《孝敬皇帝睿德记》,记述了李弘的丧葬,但回避了他的死因
陵园东北角是李弘之妃哀皇后陵墓,俗称娘娘冢
恭陵是我国唐代陵墓中保存较好的一座,也是中原地区规模最大的一座唐代帝陵。是国家文物保护单位。
Grave Tang Gong Ling
Grave Tang Gong Ling is on mountain Jing Shan top, village Hu Tuo, town Gou Shi, county Yan Shi, Luo Yang. A lot of people call it “Tai Zi Zhong.” It is Li Hong’s grave, he is son of Tang dynasty emperor Li Zhi and Wu Ze Tian.
Li Hong was born in A.D. 652, temporary prince in 2 years old, royal prince in A.D. 656. He was dead in palace He Bi Gong when he was 24 years old. It is written in Zi Zhi Tong Jian that, common people doubted Wu Ze Tian poisoned Li Hong. The death of Li Hong made Li Zhi very sad, ordered making large funeral ceremony.
Area of grave Tang Gong Ling is about 500 Mu of land, 168 and 180 meters wide and long, above 30 meters high. There are nine pairs of stone animals on each side of front way, designed by royal artist Wei hong ji, whom also designed Long Men grottoes, very valuable. The grave was the first one in Tang dynasty with stone animals in front. A stone tablet is before the grave, 6.1 meters high, 1.95 meters wide. Li Zhi wrote some words on it to remember Li Hong and the funeral.
North east of the grave is Li Hong’s wife Ai Fei’s grave, local people call it Niang Niang Zhong.
Grave Tang Gong Ling is better preserved than others of Tang dynasty, also one largest royal grave in center area of Tang dynasty. It is protected by national cultural relics bureau.
洛阳隋唐定鼎门遗址博物馆
隋唐遗址博物馆位于洛阳新区古城路北隋唐遗址植物园东南。2009年建成开放,是隋唐洛阳城盛景“冰山一角”。
定鼎门隋初名建国门。正式启用于隋大业二年(公元606)正月,隋炀帝是第一个通过这座城门的古代帝王。唐高祖武德四年(公元621年)更名定鼎门。武则天朝礼拜佛,也都是从此门前呼后拥走出来的。之后,该城门相继被后梁、后唐、后周和北宋定为外郭城正门。北宋末年逐渐废弃。定鼎门作为郭城南垣正门的时间长达530年。国家文物局批准复原展示。
定鼎门遗址保护展示区复原耗资很大。遗址上面复原建设定鼎门新城门楼,外观为仿唐建筑,由城门、城墙、城楼和阙楼组成。总建筑面积12616平方米,建筑高度28米。其中,地下一层为原址展示,展示考古发掘出的定鼎门遗址门道、柱础石、城墙等。地两层为博物馆,展示定鼎门遗址的演变历史和考古发掘中出土的部分文物。
近年来,考古人员多次在此进行考古调查和发掘,发现了千年前驼队足迹等重要历史遗存。博物馆前丝绸之路文化广场将竖起一座丝绸之路浮雕
Sui Tang Dìng Dǐng Men (city wall) relics Museum
Sui Tang Ding Ding Men relics museum is in Gu Cheng road, new district. It was rebuilt and opened to people in 2009, first built in Sui dynasty.
Ding Ding Men was Jian Guo Men in Sui dynasty. Sui dynasty emperor Sui Yang Di first named and used it in A.D. 606. Tang dynasty emperor Tang Gao Zu named it Ding Ding Men in A.D. 621. Female emperor Wu Ze Tian also came here. Then, it was used in Late Liang, Late Tang, Late Zhou and North Song dynasties, abandoned slowly since late period of North Song dynasty. Ding Ding Men was used during 530 years. China relics government allowed local government to rebuild and exhibit it.
It is a large project. The outside of Ding Ding Meng is designed according to Tang dynasty style. It includes city gate, city wall, city gate center building and city gate sides building. Total area is 12616 square meters, 28 meters high. Inside the museum, the first floor is the relics. They are gate way, stone pillars, city wall and others. The second and third floor is museum, showing Ding Ding Men history and its relics.
Some archaeologists discovered relics of camels’ group steps in recent years. They are signs of Silk Road. “Silk Road relief” will be erected outside Ding Ding Men relics’ museum.
洛阳灵山景区
洛阳灵山景区位于宜阳县城西7.5公里处的洛河南岸。系熊耳山余脉,海拔500米,面积约7.5平方公里。又名凤凰山。
灵山寺为赵朴初所提。寺院始建于金大定三年(公元1163年),距今已有800多年,明、清两代几经重修,是中国唯一一座坐南朝北的寺院,为河南省重点文物保护单位。 主要景观有:独特山门阁楼;河南省现存最早的三尊泥塑作品;镇寺之宝--明成化年间七级四面石砖塔;57块碑刻;《大藏经》在内的三百余部佛经。山门建于清康熙十年一进为明代的天王殿,供祀四天王像;二进佛殿供3尊高1.6米的玉石佛像,殿前参天千岁银杏枝繁叶茂;三进殿内5尊佛像,各高2.2米,系明代艺术珍品。大雄殿和中佛殿均系金代原始结构,是古代建筑艺术的宝贵遗产。
灵山寺东侧凤凰泉,历久旱而不干;泉南的芳草翠柏之中,掩映着当今全国八个塔群之一的灵山塔林;塔林背后漫山遍布灵山鸟柏,这种柏树的刨面纹理很像鸟的形象,极为罕见。山门北50米,有一道高10余丈,长一里许的悬崖,崖下溶穴石纹奇异,内含多种古植物化石,是天然的上水石。灵山之巅极目远眺,洛河风光尽收眼底。
Ling Shan Mountain
It is in south bank of Luo He river, 7.5 kilo meters west from county Yi Yang, part of mountain Xiong Er. Its height is about 500 meters, area 7.5 square kilo meters, also name Feng Huang mountain.
Temple Ling Shan Si, written by Zhao Pu Chu, built in dynasty Jin, A.D 1163, rebuilt in Ming and Qing dynasties. Mountain gate, mud sculptures, stone bricks tower, tablets, Buddhist books are all important in the temple. The mountain gate was built in Qing dynasty, into three halls, save Buddhist statues, outside is a thousand years ginkgo tree.
Spring Feng Huang Quan is in east side of the temple. Many towers and trees are in south of spring. Among the trees, a kind of cypress is very special. A cliff is on north mountain gate. A cave is under the cliff. Many kinds of special stones are in it. You can see the whole river Luo He on the mountain Ling Shan top.

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