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博物馆 、石窟、夹马营、李贺故里、二程故里、端门天枢、陈抟龙门十卷书。

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洛阳博物新馆
洛阳博物馆是国家一级博物馆。博物馆新馆位于洛阳市新区隋唐城遗址公园北侧,占地300亩。
博物馆前有一柱,高55米,顶端四龙托珠,柱名天枢。馆外墙13龛浮雕,内容有河图洛书大禹铸九鼎商汤祈雨周公制礼作乐孔子入周问礼班超出使西域洛神赋栩栩如生。博物馆外形如大鼎屹立,寓意定鼎洛邑,体现十三朝古都历史内涵。
内部陈展面积17万平方米,展出文物11万余件。陈展主题为河洛文明,有史前时期、夏商周时期、汉魏时期、隋唐时期、五代北宋时期5大篇章,全方位、多角度展示了河洛文化的形成与演进轨迹。展馆分为洛阳珍宝馆,汉唐陶俑馆,唐三彩馆,宫廷文物馆,古代石刻馆和书画馆6大专题。突出展示洛阳的都城文化,遗址文化,河洛文化,园林文化,地理形胜。
石刻馆的东汉石辟邪,重8吨以上,经历两千多年岁月侵蚀,完好无损,举世罕见是博物馆的镇馆之宝。其它珍宝还有“华夏第一爵乳钉纹铜爵,“华夏第一龙 绿松石龙形器周王自作器王作铜鼎以及三国和田玉酒杯盛唐三彩黑马明清金丝楠木塔。
欲知天下兴废事,请君只看洛阳城。了解洛阳古今,洛阳博物馆不可不去。  
New Luo Yang Museum
New Luo Yang museum is national museum. It is built in new district of Luo Yang, covering large area.
A pillar Tian Shu is in front square, 55 meters high, with four dragons supporting one bead. 13 sculptures are on outside wall of the museum, about Luo Yang history, very alive. The museum appearance is like a large vessel. They symbolize 13 dynasties build capital in Luo Yang.
Inside exhibition area is 17000 square meters, more than 11000 exhibited articles. It is divided into 5 periods: Prehistory, Xia Shang Zhou, Han Wei, Sui Tang, Wu Dai and North Song, 6 halls: Treasury, Han Tang dynasties pottery figures, Tri-colors, Royal relics, Ancient stone carves, Calligraphies. Especially exhibitions are capital culture, relics culture, He Luo culture, gardens culture and geography.
In Ancient stone carves hall, a good luck stone animal Bi Xie above 8 tons more than 2000 years old (East Hang dynasty) but without any damage is the most precious. Some others treasuries in the museum like the first bronze vessel, dragon turquoise, jade ware, tri-color horse and wooden tower are also very precious.
“Yu zhi tian xia xing feng shi, qing jun zhi kan luo yang cheng.” If you want to know Luo Yang history, please come to Luo yang and the new museum.
龙门唐代石窟
唐代龙门石窟,占龙门石窟总数的60%以上。最有代表性的洞窟有潜溪寺、万佛洞、奉先寺大像龛等。武则天执政时期开凿的石窟占唐代石窟的多数。
潜溪寺是唐代开凿的第一个洞窟,位于龙门西山北端,高、宽各九米多,进深近七米,大约建于一千三百多年前的唐代初期。窟顶藻井为一朵浅刻大莲花。主佛阿弥陀佛,左右侧分别为迦叶、阿难、观世音菩萨,特别是南壁的大势至菩萨,造型丰满敦厚,仪态文静,在故宫博物院有的复制品陈列
万佛洞完工于唐高宗永隆元年十一月,因洞内南北两侧整齐排列一万五千尊小佛而得名,是龙门石窟造像组合最完整的洞窟。窟顶环绕莲花周围一则碑刻题记,说明该洞窟是宫中二品女官主持下开凿的,据传,施工人员也皆为女性。洞口南侧有一尊通高85厘米菩萨像,是唐代众多菩萨像的精美范例中国著名戏剧大师梅兰芳看过后大加赞赏,将其造型成功地运用到自己的表演中。
奉先寺是龙门石窟规模最大、艺术最精湛的一组摩崖型群雕。此窟开凿于唐高宗初,皇后武则天曾赞助脂粉钱两万贯。这里共有一佛、二弟子、二菩萨、二天王、二力士等九尊大像。中间主佛为卢舍那大佛,雕凿三年零九个月完成,通高17.14米,头高4米,耳朵长达1.9米,具有强大的艺术和宗教的震撼力。 卢舍那大佛的建成,和武则天的政治地位密不可分,她那永恒的微笑,成为中国石刻艺术的典范之作,也是盛唐伟大时代的象征
Long Men Grottoes in Tang dynasty
In Long Men, Tang dynasty grottoes are more than 60%. Temple Qian Xi Si, cave Wan Fo Dong, temple Feng Xian Si are the representatives, especially Buddha Lu She Na in the temple Feng Xian Si is very great. Most of them were carved during female emperor Wu Ze Tian was in power.
Temple Qian Xi Si was the first grotto of Tang Dynasty, in north west of Long Men Grottoes, more than nine meters high and wide, nearly seven meters deep, 1300 years long, beginning of Tang dynasty. Top of the grotto is a lotus. One Buddha and different Bodhisattvas are in the wall of the grotto. A copy of the Buddha is now saved in Gu Gong Museum of Bei Jing.
Cave Wan Fo Dong was completed during emperor Tang Gao Zong was in power, named from more than ten thousand Buddhas. It is said that the designers and workers of the grotto are all women. A Buddha of 85 cm high is very delicate. Beijing opera actor Mei Lang Fang liked it very much. Then, he acted the style in his opera.
Temple Feng Xian Si is the most great and delicate grotto in Long Meng. It was carved from Tang Gao Zong to Wu Ze Tian, cost large money. Buddha Lu She Na is in the grotto. It is more than seventeen meters high. Her smile is very special and important in Chinese art and history.
龙门东山石窟精品
擂鼓台,位于龙门东山石窟区南端,为东山石窟区开凿早(唐天授三年)、规模大的一组洞窟。由北、中、南三洞及窟外崖面多个小龛构成。北洞为我国最早的密教造像洞窟。南洞酷似北洞。中洞又称大万”佛洞,因壁面布满15万尊佛像而得名。相传,此处曾是古战场,开战时,士兵在此擂鼓助阵,后人便把这里叫作擂鼓台。亦有说是奉先寺竣工之时,擂鼓祝贺的地方。
万佛沟,位于擂鼓台北面,是一条东西向的山沟,造像众多。它是龙门石窟从盛唐到中、晚唐时期的一个造像中心,大约占了龙门唐代造像的百分之二十左右。其中最主要的窟龛有:观音龛”,内有唐德宗贞元七年(791年)所刻救苦观世音菩萨石像铭并序而得名是龙门石窟中唯一的晚唐时期有造像纪年的佛龛“高平郡王洞”,是万佛沟内最大的一个石窟,曾有东山第一窟之称“西方净土变”,据说是白居易出资修建的;“千手千眼观音”,是我国现存最早的一身千手千眼观音造像。
看经寺,开凿于唐玄宗开元年间,为东山最大的洞窟。宽约11米、深约14米、高8余米。传说是唐僧晾晒经书的地方。今正面所存砖瓦结构二层楼,门额刻看经寺三字,为清代所建。
精舍,在万佛沟东端深处,有一个大小如一间小屋的空龛,龛高正好可容一人盘坐,周围环境偏僻且幽静,是当年僧徒习禅的“精舍”。晚唐诗人刘沧《题龙门僧房》——“静室遥临伊水东,寂寥谁与此身同。禹门山色度寒磬,萧寺竹声来晚风。僧宿石龛残雪在,雁归沙渚夕阳空。偶将心地向高土,坐指浮生一梦中。”
Long men East Mountain caves
Lei gu tai, south in long men east mountain caves, from tang dynasty, very large. It is formed by north, south, center caves and small niches. North cave is the earliest. South cave is like north cave. Center cave is famous for 15 thousand Buddhist images. It is said, lei gu tai is for fighting. Also said, it is for celebrating feng xian temple completed.
Wan fo gou, north of lei gu tai, a east-west direction gully, many Buddhist images. Most are tang dynasty, occupy twenty percent all tang dynasty images in long men. Major caves: “guan yin cave” famous for its years number; “gao ping jun wang cave” famous for its large; “xi fang jing tu bian cave” famous for Bai ju yi; “thousand hands and eyes guan yin cave” famous for its early.
Kan jing si, Tang dynasty kai yuan year, is the largest cave in East Mountain, about 11 meters wide, 14 meters deep, and 8 meters high. Story said monk Tang seng had shined books here. Now two floors house of bricks, “kan jing si” in head, was built in qing dynasty.
Jing she, deep in east wan fo gou, is a empty niche like a room, containing a person to sit cross-legged, very silent, for monks studying Buddhism. Poet Liu Cang in late tang dynasty wrote a poem for jing she, very alive.
洛阳夹马营-北宋两个皇帝出生的地方
夹马营,又称甲马营,在今洛阳市瀍河区爽明街北,是宋朝开国皇帝赵匡胤和弟弟赵光义出生的地方。传说赵匡胤出生时夜出红,像烧了一场大火,因此,也将夹马营称火烧街。这里曾有宋太祖庙、迎恩寺
宋太祖赵匡胤(927-976)祖籍河北涿州,其父赵弘殷,任后唐禁军将领,驻扎在洛阳甲马营。赵匡胤在洛阳生活二十二年。成年后,骁勇善战。后周世宗柴荣登帝,赵匡胤成为禁军统帅。公元960年,赵匡胤发动兵变,登上皇位,建立宋王朝,定都开封,以洛阳为西京。
公元975年,赵匡胤派要员修复洛阳宫室,打算迁都洛阳。公元976年,五凤楼,洛阳宫城正南门,宣布大赦天下。回夹马营故居,指某处道:幼时曾得一小石马,屡被其他儿童窃去,遂埋于此,不知尚在否?命人刨开,果然找到了小石马。虽热爱洛阳,但最终定都的愿望没有实现。
宋太宗赵匡义(939-997),因避其赵匡胤讳改名赵光义,即位后改名炅其兄赵匡胤小12岁。太祖驾崩后,38岁的赵光义登基为帝,在位共21年,是宋朝的第二个皇帝。
由于这两位皇帝,亦称真龙天子,都曾居于夹马营,因此人们又称此处为双龙巷。当地春节舞龙,有白胡须的白龙和黑胡须的青龙,据说是为纪念这两位皇帝。
Jia Ma Ying and two North Song dynasty emperors
Jia Ma Ying is in north Shuang Ming street, Chan He district, Luo Yang. North Song dynasty emperors Zhao kuang yin and his young brother Zhao guang yi were born here. A red light suddenly appeared when Zhao kuang yin was born, like fire, so the street also Huo Shao Jie (fire burning street). There were temples Song Tai Zu and Ying En Si before.
Zhao kuang yin’s (927-976) ancestral home is in Tun Zhou, He Bei province. His father was a military officer, stayed in Jia Ma Ying. Zhao kuang yin was growing 22 years in the street, brave and wise. In 960, Zhao kuang yin started a war to be in power began Song dynasty, Kai Feng was capital, Luo Yang was western capital.
Zhao kuang yin liked luo yang very much, because he was growing up here. One of his dream was to make Luo Yang as real capital.
In 975, Zhao kuang yin rebuilt luo yang to be real capital. In 976, he declared amnesty on south gate of Luo Yang. Back to Jia Ma Ying, he found the small stone horse buried here for not stolen by other kids when he was a boy. But dream to make Luo Yang as real capital didn’t come true. Name of Jia Ma Ying is from the small stone horse story.
Zhao kuang yi (939-997) was second emperor in Song dynasty. He changed name as Zhao guang yi and then Jiong when he was in power at the age of 38 for 12 years. Common people are forbidden to be same name with emperor before in China. So Zhao kuang yi changed name.
Long Zi is dragon’s son in Chinese, also sign of emperor. The two emperors were born in the street, so local people call it Shuang Long Xiang (two dragons street) and play dragons in spring festival to celebrate them.
李贺故里
李贺故里在洛阳宜阳县三乡的昌谷。
李贺(790~816),字长吉,世称李长吉、鬼才、诗鬼等,与李白、李商隐三人并称唐代“三李”。祖籍陇西,洛阳。一生愁苦多病,仅做过3年从九品微官奉礼郎,因病27岁卒。李贺是中唐浪漫主义诗人的代表,又是中唐到晚唐诗风转变期的重要人物。
宜阳县三乡东的连昌河源于陕县,自西北向东南穿谷而过,经洛宁县东北境入宜阳三乡,注入洛河。昌谷就在连昌河与洛河的汇合处,昌谷之名即以连昌河谷而得。
旧《宜阳县志》载:“长吉(李贺)多才,栖息昌谷”。在李贺的诗歌中,有不少直接以昌谷为题的作品。据《南园十三首·其二》的“宫北田塍晓气酣”句,宫即连昌宫,为唐高宗显庆三年(658年)建,又有玉阳宫、兰昌宫之称。连昌宫的遗址,就在连昌河谷,李贺的故宅离连昌宫不远。西有“汉刹云山”(光武庙),南有女几山隔河相望,有名的五花寺塔矗立于连昌河西岸。当年的众多权贵名人,如武则天、唐玄宗、张九龄、岑参、韩愈、白居易、元稹、杜牧等,在这里都有吟咏唱和的诗文。现在当地正在规划重修李贺故居和建设李贺纪念馆,并已成立了李贺研究会和李贺诗词协会,以对李贺及其诗作进行深入发掘研究。
Old House of Li He
Old house of Li He is in valley Chang Gu, village San Xiang, county Yi Yang, Luo Yang.
Li He (790-816), name Chang Ji, also Li Chang Ji, nick name poet ghost, same famous with Li Bai and Li Shang Yin. They are “three Lis” in Tang dynasty. His original family home is in Long Xi. All his life was sick and sad, only in lowest political position for 3 years, dead at the age of 27. Li He represented romantic poet in middle time of Tang dynasty, also important from middle to late time.
The name Chang Gu is from river Lian Chang He. Valley Chang Gu is in joint of river Lian Chang He and river Luo He.
Li He often lived in valley Chang Gu. In most of his poems, Chang Gu was described many times. Here was a palace Lian Chang Gong, not far away from the old house of Li He. Many famous people in Tang dynasty visited here. Local government is going to rebuild the old house of Li He to save and study his works.
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二程故里
洛阳市嵩县田湖镇程村,是宋代大理学家程颢、程颐后代居住的地方。
二程故里初建于宋高宗绍兴辛亥年间。明景泰六年(公元1455年)皇帝下诏将程村命名为“二程故里”,并扩建房舍,还在程村东一里处建石牌坊,书“圣旨”、“二程故里”。宋,明,清年间均有复修。
程颢(1032-1085),字伯淳,人称明道先生。程颐(103-1107),字正叔,人称伊川先生,为程颢胞弟。他们是北宋著名哲学家、思想家、宋明理学的重要代表人物。伊川书院的记载,“程门立雪”的典故,证明他们也是中国历史上的大教育家。
二程故里有二程祠。全祠总面积为4392平方米,布局系三节大院。前节有“棂星门”,“诚敬门”,“春风亭”,“立雪阁”;二节有“道学堂”,“和风甘雨亭”,“烈日秋霜亭”;三节有“启贤堂”,“著述楼”。祠堂内尚存宋、元、明、清碑碣25方。清康熙帝书“学达性天”,光绪帝书“伊洛源渊”,慈禧书“希踪颜孟”3副匾额挂在堂中。
二程去世后葬于今伊川县城西荆山脚下,称为程园。前祠庙,后墓冢,明清石碑数十方,古树参天,肃穆幽静。
Er Cheng Gu Li
Er Cheng Gu Li, in Cheng village, Tian Hu town, Song county, Luo Yang, where late generations of Song dynasty brother philosophers Cheng Yi and Cheng Hao live.
The village was first built in Song dynasty, when emperor Song Gao Zong in power. Ming dynasty (1455 AD) emperor in Jing Tai six year named it Er Cheng Gu Li, expanded it, a stone arch with Chinese words “Sheng Zhi” “Er Cheng Gu Li” was built one mile east from Cheng village. Then, it was rebuilt several times in Song, Ming and Qing dynasties.
Cheng Hao (1032-1085) is Bo Chun, also Ming Dao. Cheng Yi (1033-1107) is Zheng Shu, or Yi Chuan, Cheng Hao’s young brother. They were philosophers, thinkers and representative figures of Neo-Confucianism in North Song dynasty. History texts and story “Cheng Meng Li Xue” prove that they are great educationist.
There is an ancestral hall in Er Cheng Gu Li. Its area is about 4392 square meters, divided into three parts. First are gates “Ling Xing Men” “Cheng Jing Men” pavilions “Chun Feng Ting” and attic “Li Xue Ge”. Second are hall “Dao Xue Tang” pavilions “He Feng Gan Yu” and “Lie Ri Qiu Shuang”. Third are hall “Qi Xian Tang” and attic “Zhu Shu Lou”. 25 tablets were left from Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties. Qing dynasty emperor Kang Xi wrote “Xue Da Xing Tian,” Guang Xu “Yi Luo Yuan Yuan” and Ci Xi “Xi Zong Yan Meng” on 3 tablets, all in the hall.
Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi are buried in Jin Shan hill foot of west Yi Chuan county, as garden Cheng Yuan. Front is ancestral hall, back is grave yard, tens stone tablets from Ming and Qing dynasties, old trees into sky, all of great silence.
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端门天枢
隋唐时期洛阳的端门,是皇城的正门。
武周时期,神都洛阳端门之外,耸立起一尊巨大的金属艺术品---天枢。
天枢的建造是武则天侄子武三思提议并组织实施的,他在上面撰写了歌颂武周政权的文字,是当时重要的政治人物。武则天亲题大周万国颂德天枢
《资治通鉴》载,武三思帅四夷酋长请铸铜铁为天枢,立于端门之外,铭纪功德,黜唐颂周。天枢的铸造,周围邻国的首领们积极捐款支持征天下铜铁。天册万岁元年,即6954,天枢成。
天枢通高44米。底部是一座铁山,周围1703=1米),宽度在4356尺之间,以铜为蟠龙麒麟萦绕之。主体是八棱型铜柱,高约31米,直径3.6米,每个棱面宽约1.5米。顶端为腾云承露盘,承露盘上四龙站立,各自身长12尺,四龙所托大珠,直径10尺。
天枢,本是北斗星中第一星的名称。这里,枢为枢纽,以喻政权,表达着通天、地、神及社稷之意,象征着高度发达的武周政权。
神龙元年(705)后,国号恢复为唐,国都迁回长安。开元二年(714),这尊当时世界上最大的艺术品在世20年后,被新的政治力量予以销毁。
Duan men and tian shu
Duan Men is front gate of Sui and Tang dynasties royal city of Luo Yang.
Tian Shu, a metal building, outside Duan Men when Wu Zhou government.
It was designed by Wu Ze Tian’s nephew Wu san si, an important person, to support Wu Zhou government. Wu Ze Tian wrote “Da Zhou Wan Guo Song De Tian Shu”.
Zi Zhi Tong Jian record, Wu san si and others made effort to build Tian Shu, with large bronze and iron. Some heads of near countries also gave money and metals. Tian Shu was finished in A.D. 695.
Tian shu is 44 meters high. Base is an “iron mountain”, 170 chi (3 chi = 1m) round, 43-56 chi wide, with “bronze dragon”. Major body is an eight sides bronze pillar, about 31m high, diameter 3.6m, each side 1.5m. Top is “cloud support”, four dragons stand, each 12 chi long, supporting four beads, diameter 10 chi.
Tian shu was a star name. Here, it is a sign of important government, symbols developed Wu Zhou power.
A.D. 705, Wu Zhou recovered Tang, capital backed to Chang An. In A.D. 714, tian shu was destroyed after standing 20 years by new government.
陈抟龙门十卷书
开张天岸马 奇异人中龙石刻,是陈抟真迹,镶嵌在龙门石窟东山潜溪寺北侧,被世人称作十卷书
相传十卷书是为赞颂道教鼻祖老子所提。字体大气磅礴,但少一横,少一点,反映了陈抟狂放不羁,独立特行的个性。
陈抟,唐懿宗咸通十二年(公元871年)十月十日出生于河南鹿邑,与老子是同一个故里。宋太宗端拱二年(公元989年)七月二十二日仙逝于华山莲花峰下张超谷中。 享年118岁。
陈抟厌烦五代之乱,交往高道隐士本有大志,但数举不第,形成我谓浮荣真是幻……转觉尘寰一梦中出世思想。先后在武当、华山等地隐居修道,研读易经,编纂出《赤松子诫》、《人伦风鉴》等多种论著,创作大量诗歌。《全宋文》收入其数篇文章,称其好读《易》,“能逆知人意
陈抟在世时已经成名,唐僖宗赐他为清虚处士,周世宗赐他为白云先生,宋太宗赐他为希夷(视而不见 听而不闻)先生。他不贪富贵不求仕禄,专心修道,集道德文章于一身,是中华民族具有传奇色彩的一代文化宗师,也被后世道教尊奉为陈抟老祖
唐代以后龙门石刻凤毛麟角。陈抟手迹存世极少。十卷书在龙门石窟,更显弥足珍贵。
Ten words of Chen Tuan in Long Men
Inscription of ten words “kai zhang tian an ma, ren jia qi yi long” was left by Chen Tuan, in temple Qian Xi Si, Long Men. People call it Shi Juan Shu.
It is said that the ten words were to praise Lao Zi, ancestor of Taoism. The form of the ten words are majestic, but “an” lack one horizontal line and “long” lack one drop, reflecting Chen Tuan’s talent.
Chen Tuan was born in county Lu Yi, He Nan province, October 10th 871 A.D. of Tang dynasty. Lao Zi was also born in Lu Yi. Chen Tuan was dead in valley Zhang Chao Gu, foot of mountain Hua Shan, July 22nd 989 A.D. of Song dynasty. All his age is 118.
Chen Tuan did not like the common society. Then he lived in the mountain Wu Dang, Hua Shan and so on, studied and wrote a lot of books.
Chen Tuan was famous for his indifference to fame and wealth. He was ancestor of Taoism, also “Chen Tuan Lao Zu.”
Inscriptions are very few in Long Meng after Tang dynasty. Inscriptions of Chen Tuan are fewer. The inscription of ten words is very precious in Long Meng.

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